Why can water appear brown, blue (as in the ocean), and clear (as in a glass of …

Why can water appear brown, blue (as in the ocean), and clear (as in a glass of water)?

Brown water contains colored contaminants that provide the color. Brown is the typical end result for a random mixture of pigments. The blue ocean is caused mostly by the sky. Since the ocean reflects some of the light from the sky, it appears blue. Pure water is almost completely colorless. Thus a glass of water has no color (unless you illuminate it with colored light). But if you look at a white light through many meters of water, that light will become slightly colored. Water absorbs a very small amount of visible light and you will see only what is not absorbed. I’m not sure what color pure water has. It may appear slightly green.

Does red or blue light bend more in glass?

Does red or blue light bend more in glass?

Blue light almost always bends more than red light because blue light almost always travels more slowly through glass than does red light. This phenomenon is known as dispersion However, there are some glasses that exhibit anomalous dispersion, where red light travels faster and bends more than blue light. Anomalous dispersion only occurs when there is a resonant absorption of light in the glass, typically because of some impurity atoms or ions in the glass or because of some transition that occurs in the glass itself. While the resonance will only absorb light at one particular wavelength, it alters the propagation of light at nearby wavelengths. At wavelengths just shorter than the absorbed wavelength, light travels anomalously fast through the glass so that it bends less than light that is somewhat redder in color.

Why is it that after swimming in a heavily chlorinated pool, you can see the spe…

Why is it that after swimming in a heavily chlorinated pool, you can see the spectrum around lights?

Your eye works very hard to keep all of the different wavelengths of light together so that they can form sharp images on your retina without any color errors. If you look at a white light bulb, all of the different colors from that bulb must arrive together on your retina or else you will see colors where they shouldn’t be. Keeping these colors together is no small task and is one of the biggest problems encountered by lens makers for cameras and telescopes. The chlorine in a pool evidently upsets your eye’s ability to control these color errors. However, I’m not sure what goes wrong or why chlorine causes this problem.

Why do dark clothes absorb heat more than light clothes?

Why do dark clothes absorb heat more than light clothes?

Dark fabrics or surfaces are very good at absorbing and emitting light. That is why they are dark. They must contain electric charges that move fairly easily (making them good antennas) and these charges must be good at exchanging energy with the surrounding material as heat. When light strikes these charges, the charges begin to move and absorb the light’s energy. This energy flows into the material as heat. Since the light is absorbed, the material appears dark (no light is reflected back toward you). But the material will also emit light very effectively when hot. If you heat a black object up, heat will flow into the charges, which will begin to move and will emit light. Thus black objects are good at both absorbing and emitting light.

Why isn’t the sky bright blue when the sun is red?

Why isn’t the sky bright blue when the sun is red?

During the day, the sky is blue because the air and dust in the air scatter mainly blue light toward your eyes. They also scatter some red light, but the blue light dominates. But at sunset, things change. The setting sun approaches the earth’s atmosphere at a very shallow angle so that it must travel many kilometers through the air before reaching your eyes. During this long trip, most of the blue light is scattered away and the sun appears very red. If the path is long enough, the blue light is scattered away many kilometers to your west so that there isn’t much of it left. When this occurs, even the sky around you appears somewhat reddish because there just isn’t any more blue to scatter. The missing blue light is visible to people living 50 or 100 kilometers to the west as their blue sky.