When you open your eyes underwater everything is blurry, but when you wear a mask, you can see clearly. Why can’t the eye focus underwater unless it has an air space, provided by the mask, in front of it? — DW, Cork City, Ireland
Just as most good camera lenses have more than one optical element inside them, so your eye has more than one optical element inside it. The outside surface of your eye is curved and actually acts as a lens itself. Without this surface lens, your eye can’t bring the light passing through it to a focus on your retina. The component in your eye that is called “the lens” is actually the fine adjustment rather than the whole optical system.
When you put your eye in water, the eye’s curved outer surface stops acting as a lens. That’s because light travels at roughly the same speed in water as it does in your eye and that light no longer bends as it enters your eye. Everything looks blurry because the light doesn’t focus on your retina anymore. But by inserting an air space between your eye and a flat plate of glass or plastic, you recover the bending at your eye’s surface and everything appears sharp again.